India’s Independence


indiaFor the eighth consecutive year, Prime Minister of India Manmohan Singh today (August 15) unfurled the national flag at the Red Fort in the capital to mark India’s 64th Independence Day.

The National Anthem of India:

Jana-gana-mana-adhinayaka, jaya he
Bharata-bhagya-vidhata.
Punjab-Sindh-Gujarat-Maratha
Dravida-Utkala-Banga
Vindhya-Himachala-Yamuna-Ganga
Uchchala-Jaladhi-taranga.
Tava shubha name jage,
Tava shubha asisa mage,
Gahe tava jaya gatha,
Jana-gana-mangala-dayaka jaya he
Bharata-bhagya-vidhata.
Jaya he, jaya he, jaya he,
Jaya jaya jaya, jaya he!

Here,Major events in India since Independence:

1947: India becomes independent, with Jawaharlal Nehru as prime minister.
Around 15 million people are displaced and nearly 500,000 killed in Hindu-Muslim riots followed by partition.

1948: Mahatma Gandhi is assassinated by an Hindu fundamentalist named Nathuram Godse.
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari succeeds Louis Mountbatten as Governor General of India.
The first Indo-Pak war breaks out at Zojila pass in Kashmir. It ends in 1948, with Kashmir divided along the line of control after united Nations(UN) intervenes and orders a ceasefire.

Nizam ruled Hyderabad joins Indian Union after military operation.
1949: On July 18,India and Pakistan sign a Ceasefire agreement in Kashmir(Karachi Agreement).

1950:on Jan 26,India becomes a republic.Rajendra Prasad becomes the first president of India.
1951: India’s first Five Year Plan is introduce.New Delhi hosts Asian Games.
1952: Nehru-led Indian National Congress (INC)gets the thumping majority in the first election to the Lok Sabha(Lower house of the parliament).
1954: the term ‘non-alignment’ use by Jawaharlal Nehru to define India’s foreign policy to  keep equal distance from the US and the Soviet Union.
1955: After rationalism Imperial Bank of India becomes State Bank of India.
1956: States are reorganised on the basis of language. Several new states like Kerela and Bombay are formed.
1957: INC wins the second Loksabha(House of the people) election.
1958:Harold Macmillan becomes the first British prime Minister to visit India.
1959: Dalai Lama crosses into India with 10,000 followers after a failed revolt against China.
Government of India forms state-owned television broadcaster Doordarshan.

1960: the state of Bombay is split and made two states Marathi dominated Maharashtra and Gujarati dominated Gujarat.

1961: Indian Military liberates Goa,Daman and Due from Portuguese.
1962: Jawaharlal Nehru leads Congress to a third straight win in general election.
India loses war with China.Around 1,383 Indian soldiers are killed.

1964:Prime Minister of India Jawaharlal Nehru dies.

1965: Second war with Pakistan over Kashmir.
Hindi becomes official language of India,but President S. Radhakrishnan assures the parliament English continues as a major language in India, .

1966: India’s second prime minister, Lal Bahadur Shastri, dies in Tashkent after signing a pact with Pakistan President Muhammad Ayub Khan ending the 1965 Indo- Pak war.
Jawaharlal Nehru’s daughter Indira Gandhi becomes prime minister of India.
1967: INC wins general election.
Radical Naxalbari movement starts in West Bengal.

1969: INC splits into two, one faction led by Indira Gandhi, the other by veteran INC leader Morarji Desai.
Backed by Indira Gandhi, V.V. Giri defeats official INC candidate N. Sanjeeva Reddy and becomes the President of India.
Privy purses for rulers of erstwhile princely states of India are abolished.
The government nationalises 14 Indian commercial banks.

1970: The National Dairy Development Board starts Operation Flood, the establishment of a national milk grid.
1971: 25-year treaty of friendship signed with the Soviet Union.
Indian National Congress (INC) led by Indira Gandhi wins general election.
Third war with Pakistan, East Pakistan becomes Bangladesh after Pakistani army is forced to surrender by the Indian army.

1972: Indira Gandhi and Pakistan’s Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto sign the Shimla pact. The pact says India or Pakistan will not change the borders unilaterally.

1973: Opposition protests against government run by Indira Gandhi intensifies.

1974: India explodes its first atomic bomb in the Pokhran desert.
Allahabad High Court finds Indira Gandhi guilty of misusing official machinery to win election.

Major railway and other strikes paralyse India.

1975: Indira Gandhi declares state of emergency, suspends civil liberties, postpones elections and imprisons many opposition leaders, journalists and other eminent persons.
India annexes Sikkim following a referendum in the hill kingdom where the majority favour joining India.
Multi starer Hindi film ‘Sholay’ becomes the biggest box office hit  in India.

1976: Compulsory birth control brainchild of Indira Gandhi’s younger son Sanjay Gandhi introduced.

1977: Indira Gandhi’s INC loses general elections to the Janata Party. Morarji Desai becomes the prime minister.

1979: Janata Party government collapses due to internal problems. Charan Singh becomes prime minister with the support of the INC.

1980: Indira Gandhi returns to power,with an absolute majority
Government nationalises seven more commercial banks.
Indira Gandhi’s younger son Sanjay Gandhi dies in plane crash in New Delhi.

1981:India’s worst train accident over a bridge near Samastipur,Bihar killed at least 400 passengers.
India and China start talks to sort out border dispute.
1982:New Delhi hosts Asian Games.
1983: India wins World Cup cricket.
At least 2,000 Muslims are killed in Nellie in Nagaon district of Assam.

1984: Indian soldiers storm Golden Temple in Amritsar,Punjab to flush out Sikh militants

Indira Gandhi assassinated by her Sikh bodyguards. It leads to anti-Sikh riots in which over 3,000 sikhs are killed. Indira Gandhi’s son Rajiv Gandhi becomes prime minister.
Gas leak at Union Carbide plant in Bhopal kills 3,000 people,15,000 disabled for life.
1985: Sikh militants blow up an Air India flight off the coast of Ireland.

1986: The century’s worst drought affects major parts of India.

1987: The Mizo accord signals an end to one of longest secessionist movements in north-eastern India.
India deploys troops in Sri Lanka’s northeast (LTTE dominated areas).

1989: INC loses to Janata Dal-led coalition of left and the right in general election. V.P. Singh becomes prime minister.

1990: Indian security forces (IPKF) withdraw from Sri Lanka after losing nearly 1,200 personnel.
Muslim separatists begin campaign of violence in Kashmir.
The decision to implement the Mandal Commission recommendations and provide reservations to Other Backward Classes (OBC) leads to countrywide violence. Rajiv Goswami,a student in Delhi University immolates himself to protest the implementation of the mandal Commission recommendations.
Janata Dal government falls after BJP withdraws supports from the V.P.Singh government.
Chandra Shekhar becomes prime minister with Congress support.

1991: Rajiv Gandhi assassinated by a LTTE suicide bomber at an election rally in Sriperumbudur, Tamilnadu.
INC wins general election. P.V. Narasimha Rao becomes prime minister.
Economic reform programme initiated by the Finance Minister Manmohan Singh.

1992: Hindu fanatics demolish Babri mosque in Ayodhya.Sporadic Hindu-Muslim violence killed nearly 700 people.

1993: On March 12, 12 Bomb blasts in Mumbai, killing 300 people,injuring 1,500.
1996: INC  suffers worst ever electoral defeat.Right wing Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) forms a minority government led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee but the government lasts only 13 days.
A 14-party United Front coalition takes power. H.D. Deve Gowda becomes the prime minister.

1997:After INC withdraws support from the Deve Gowda government,Inder Kumar Gujral becomes prime minister. After eight months, INC withdraws support again and Gujral resigns.

1998: BJP led National Democratic Alliance (NDA)forms the government, Atal Behari Vajpayee becomes prime minister for the second time.
India conducts nuclear tests.

1999: Vajpayee makes a bus trip to Lahore, Pakistan to meet Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and signs a peace declaration.Indian army recaptures lost territories from Pakistani infiltrators in Kargil,Jammu and Kashmir.
BJP-led coalition losses a confidence motion in parliament. In fresh general election, BJP-led NDA again wins. Vajpayee remains the prime minister of India.

2000:On May 11, India’s population crosses the one billion mark.

2001: Massive earthquakes hit Bhuj,Gujarat,death toll reaches 30,000.
The prime minister of India A.B.Vajpayee meets Pakistan President Pervez Musharraf in Agra over the Kashmir issue.
Pakistan based terrorists attack parliament in New Delhi. India blames Pakistan and imposes sanctions.The largest deployment of troops along India-Pakistan border.

2002: India test-fires nuclear-capable ballistic missile Agni.

Anti-Muslim riots break out after 57 Hindus returning from Ayodhya are attacked and killed in train fire in Godhra, Gujarat. More than 1,000 people are killed.
2003: On August 25,twin bomb blasts at the Gateway of India and Zavari Bazar,Mumbai killing 52 people.

2004:Indian national Congress (INC) led United Progressive Alliance(UPA)wins the general election. DR. Manmohan Singh becomes prime minister after Sonia Gandhi declines the post.
at least 10,000 people die when a tsunami devastates coastal southern India and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

2005: Bus services between Srinagar and Muzaffarabad in Pakistan for the first time since partition.

2006:simultaneous bomb blasts in packed commuter trains at Matunga,Mahim,Bandra,Khar Road,Jogeshwari,Bhyander and Borivli railway stations,Mumbai killing at least 187 people

2007: India growth figures reaches 9.4 percent highest in recent years.
Pratibha Devi Singh Patil becomes first woman president of India.

2008:Major terrorists attack including 26/11 killing hundreds of people.

2009:Indian National Congress(INC) led United Progressive Alliance(UPA) returns back to power with a bang.

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About shanthanubh

A calcutta(India)based Independent newsresearcher and Investigative reporter.He has been working as a journalist for more than 15 years.He had worked as a news researcher for various news based programs in Calcutta.Shanthanu considers Deborah Potter and Theressha Collington Moore as his mentor because in his early days of journalism carrier, he was inspired and motivited by their works and learnt a lot from them about media ethics and news research.Though,a news researcher don't get enough credit for his job,he sticks to it.He believes that as journalists we should follow the jounalism mantra that if your mother says she loves you, check it out.we work as a store clerk.we believe that facts are more important than adjectives.Earlier,he also worked as a private investigator to brush up his skill as an Investigative Reporter.

Posted on August 15, 2009, in Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink. Leave a comment.

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